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Timeline of programming languages

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This is a record of historically important programming languages, by decade.

Pre-1950[edit]

YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
1804Jacquard LoomJoseph Marie Jacquardnone (unique language)
1943–45Plankalkül (concept)Konrad Zusenone (unique language)
1943–46ENIAC coding systemJohn von NeumannJohn MauchlyJ. Presper EckertHerman Goldstineafter Alan Turingnone (unique language)
1946ENIAC Short CodeRichard Clippinger, John von Neumann after Alan TuringENIAC coding system
1946Von Neumann and Goldstine graphing system(Notation)John von Neumann and Herman GoldstineENIAC coding system
1947ARC AssemblyKathleen Booth[1][2]ENIAC coding system
1948CPC Coding schemeHoward H. AikenAnalytical Engine order code
1948Curry notation systemHaskell CurryENIAC coding system
1948Plankalkül (concept published)Konrad Zusenone (unique language)
1949Short CodeJohn Mauchly and William F. SchmittENIAC Short Code

1950s[edit]

YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
1950Short CodeWilliam F Schmidt, Albert B. Tonik,[3] J.R. LoganBrief Code
1950Birkbeck AssemblerKathleen BoothARC
1951SuperplanHeinz RutishauserPlankalkül
1951ALGAEEdward A Voorhees and Karl Balkenone (unique language)
1951Intermediate Programming LanguageArthur BurksShort Code
1951Regional Assembly LanguageMaurice WilkesEDSAC
1951Boehm unnamed coding systemCorrado BöhmCPC Coding scheme
1951KlammerausdrückeKonrad ZusePlankalkül
1951OMNIBAC Symbolic AssemblerCharles KatzShort Code
1951Stanislaus (Notation)Fritz Bauernone (unique language)
1951Whirlwind assemblerCharles Adams and Jack Gilmore at MIT Project WhirlwindEDSAC
1951Rochester assemblerNat RochesterEDSAC
1951Sort Merge GeneratorBetty Holbertonnone (unique language)
1952A-0Grace HopperShort Code
1952Glennie AutocodeAlick Glennie after Alan TuringCPC Coding scheme
1952Editing GeneratorMilly KossSORT/MERGE
1952COMPOOLRAND/SDCnone (unique language)
1953SpeedcodingJohn W. Backusnone (unique language)
1953READ/PRINTDon Harroff, James Fishman, George Ryckmannone (unique language)
1954Laning and Zierler systemLaning, Zierler, Adams at MIT Project Whirlwindnone (unique language)
1954Mark I AutocodeTony BrookerGlennie Autocode
1954–55Fortran (concept)Team led by John W. Backus at IBMSpeedcoding
1954ARITH-MATICTeam led by Grace Hopper at UNIVACA-0
1954MATH-MATICTeam led by Charles KatzA-0
1954MATRIX MATHH G Kahrimaniannone (unique language)
1954IPL I (concept)Allen NewellCliff ShawHerbert A. Simonnone (unique language)
1955FLOW-MATICTeam led by Grace Hopper at UNIVACA-0
1955BACAICM. Grems and R. Porter
1955PACT ISHAREFORTRAN, A-2
1955Freiburger Code[4][5]University of FreiburgN/A
1955–56Sequentielle FormelübersetzungFritz Bauer and Karl SamelsonBoehm
1955–56ITTeam led by Alan PerlisLaning and Zierler
1955PRINTIBM
1956–58LISP (concept)John McCarthyIPL
1957COMTRANBob BemerFLOW-MATIC
1957GEORGECharles Leonard Hamblinnone (unique language)
1957Fortran I (implementation)John W. Backus at IBMFORTRAN
1957–58UNICODERemington Rand UNIVACMATH-MATIC
1957COMIT (concept)none (unique language)
1958IPL II (implementation)Allen NewellCliff ShawHerbert A. SimonIPL I
1958Fortran IITeam led by John W. Backus at IBMFORTRAN I
1958ALGOL 58 (IAL)ACM/GAMMFORTRAN, IT, Sequentielle Formelübersetzung
1958IPL VAllen NewellCliff ShawHerbert A. SimonIPL II
1959APTDouglas T. Ross
1959FACTFletcher R. JonesRoy Nutt, Robert L. Patricknone (unique language)
1959COBOL (concept)The CODASYL CommitteeFLOW-MATIC, COMTRAN, FACT
1959JOVIALJules Schwartz at SDCALGOL 58
1959LISP (implementation)John McCarthyIPL
1959MAD – Michigan Algorithm DecoderBruce ArdenBernard Galler, and Robert M. GrahamALGOL 58
1959TRAC (concept)Calvin Mooers

1960s[edit]

YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
1960ALGOL 60ALGOL 58
1960COBOL 61 (implementation)The CODASYL CommitteeFLOW-MATIC, COMTRAN
1961COMIT (implementation)none (unique language)
1962FORTRAN IVIBMFORTRAN II
1962APL (concept)Kenneth E. Iversonnone (unique language)
1962Simula (concept)ALGOL 60
1962SNOBOLRalph Griswoldet al.FORTRAN II, COMIT
1963CPLBarron, Christopher Stracheyet al.ALGOL 60
1963SNOBOL3Griswoldet al.SNOBOL
1963ALGOL 68 (concept)Adriaan van Wijngaardenet al.ALGOL 60
1963JOSS ICliff Shaw, RANDALGOL 58
1964MIMICH. E. Petersen, et al.MIDAS
1964COWSELRod BurstallRobin PopplestoneCPL, LISP
1964PL/I (concept)IBMALGOL 60, COBOL, FORTRAN
1964BASICJohn George Kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz at Dartmouth CollegeFORTRAN II, JOSS
1964IBM RPGIBMFARGO
1964Mark-IVInformatics
1964Speakeasy-2Stanley Cohen at Argonne National LaboratorySpeakeasy
1964TRAC (implementation)Calvin Mooers
1964P′′Corrado Böhmnone (unique language)
1964?IITRAN
1965RPG IIIBMFARGORPG
1965MAD/I (concept)University of MichiganMADALGOL 60PL/I
1965TELCOMPBBNJOSS
1965Atlas AutocodeTony Brooker, Derrick Morris at Manchester UniversityAlgol 60Autocode
1966JOSS IIChuck Baker, RANDJOSS I
1966ALGOL WNiklaus WirthC. A. R. HoareALGOL 60
1966FORTRAN 66FORTRAN IV
1966ISWIM (Concept)Peter J. LandinLISP
1966CORAL66ALGOL 60
1966APL (implementation)[6]Kenneth E. Iversonnone (unique language)
1967BCPLMartin RichardsCPL
1967MUMPSMassachusetts General HospitalFORTRAN, TELCOMP
1967Simula 67 (implementation)Ole-Johan Dahl, Bjørn Myhrhaug, Kristen Nygaard at Norsk RegnesentralALGOL 60
1967InterLispD.G. Bobrow and D.L. MurphyLisp
1967EXAPTHerwart Opitz, Wilhelm Simon, Günter Spur, and Gottfried Stute at RWTH Aachen University and TU BerlinAPT
1967SNOBOL4Ralph Griswoldet al.SNOBOL3
1967XPLWilliam M. McKeemanet al. at University of California Santa Cruz, California
J. J. Horninget al. at Stanford University
PL/I
1967Space Programming Language(SPL)System Development CorporationJOVIAL
1968ALGOL 68 (UNESCO/IFIPstandard)Adriaan van WijngaardenBarry J. MaillouxJohn E. L. Peck and Cornelis H. A. Koster,et al.ALGOL 60
1968POP-1Rod BurstallRobin PopplestoneCOWSEL
1968DIBOL-8DECDIBOL
1968Forth (concept)Moore
1968LOGOWally FeurzeigSeymour PapertCynthia SolomonLISP
1968MAPPERUnisysCRT RPS
1968REFAL (implementation)Valentin Turchinnone (unique language)
1968TTM (implementation)Steven Caine and E. Kent Gordon, California Institute of TechnologyGAP, GPM
1968PILOTJohn Amsden StarkweatherUniversity of California, San FranciscoComputest
1969PL/I (implementation)IBMALGOL 60, COBOL, FORTRAN
1969BKen Thompson, with contributions from Dennis RitchieBCPL
1969Polymorphic Programming Language (PPL)Thomas A. Standish at Harvard University
1969SETLJack Schwartz at Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences
1969TUTORPaul Tenczar & University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
1969Edinburgh IMPEdinburgh UniversityAlgol 60AutocodeAtlas Autocode

1970s[edit]

YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
1970?Forth (implementation)Charles H. Moore
1970POP-2Robin PopplestonePOP-1
1970PascalNiklaus Wirth, Kathleen JensenALGOL 60, ALGOL W
1970BLISSWulf, Russell, Habermann at Carnegie Mellon UniversityALGOL
1971KRLDaniel G. Bobrow at Xerox PARCTerry Winograd at Stanford UniversityKM, FRL (MIT)
1971SueRic Holt et al. at University of TorontoPascal, XPL
1971Compiler Description Language (CDL)Cornelis H.A. Koster at University of Nijmegen
1972SmalltalkAlan KayAdele GoldbergDan IngallsXerox PARCSimula 67
1972PL/MGary Kildall at Digital ResearchPL/I, ALGOL, XPL
1972CDennis RitchieB, BCPL, ALGOL 68
1972INTERCALDon Woods and James M. Lyonnone (unique language)
1972PrologAlain Colmerauer2-level W-Grammar
1972Structured Query language (SQL)IBMALPHA, Quel (Ingres)
1973COMALBørge Christensen, Benedict LøfstedtPascal, BASIC
1973MLRobin Milner
1973LISJean Ichbiah et al. at CII Honeywell BullPascal, Sue
1973Speakeasy-3Stanley Cohen, Steven Pieper at Argonne National LaboratorySpeakeasy-2
1974CLUBarbara LiskovALGOL 60, Lisp, Simula
1974GRASSThomas A. DeFantiBASIC
1974BASIC FOURMAI BASIC Four Inc.Business BASIC
1974PROSE modeling languageCDC 6600 Cybernet ServicesSLANG, FORTRAN
1975ABCLeo Geurts and Lambert MeertensSETL
1975Irvine Dataflow (concept)Arvind?, University of California, Irvine
1975PROSE modeling language Time-Sharing VersionCDC 6400 Cybernet KRONOS ServicesSLANG, FORTRAN
1975SchemeGerald Jay SussmanGuy L. Steele, Jr.LISP
1975Altair BASICBill GatesPaul AllenBASIC
1975CS-4James S. Miller, Benjamin M. Brosgol et al. at IntermetricsALGOL 68, BLISS, ECL, HAL
1975ModulaNiklaus WirthPascal
1976PlusAllan Ballard, Paul Whaley at the University of British ColumbiaPascal, Sue
1976Smalltalk-76Xerox PARCSmalltalk-72
1976MesaXerox PARCALGOL
1976SAM76Claude A.R. KaganLISP, TRAC
1976RatforBrian KernighanC, FORTRAN
1976SJohn Chambers at Bell LabsAPL, PPL, Scheme
1976SASSAS Institute
1976Integer BASICSteve WozniakBASIC
1977FPJohn Backusnone (unique language)
1977Bourne Shell (sh)Stephen R. Bournenone (unique language)
1977Commodore BASICJack TramielBASIC
1977IDLDavid Stern of Research Systems IncFortran
1977Standard MUMPSMUMPS
1977Icon (concept)Ralph GriswoldSNOBOL
1977RedBenjamin M. Brosgol et al. at Intermetrics for US Dept of DefenseALGOL 68, CS-4
1977BlueJohn B. Goodenough et al. at SofTech for US Dept of DefenseALGOL 68
1977YellowJay Spitzen et al. at SRI International for US Dept of DefenseALGOL 68
1977EuclidButler Lampson at Xerox ParcRic Holt and James Cordy at University of Toronto
1977Applesoft BASICMarc McDonald and Ric WeilandBASIC
1978RAPTPat Ambler and Robin PopplestoneAPT
1978C shellBill JoyC
1978RPG IIIIBMFARGORPGRPG II
1978HAL/Sdesigned by Intermetrics for NASAXPL
1978Applesoft II BASICMarc McDonald and Ric WeilandApplesoft BASIC
1975Irvine Dataflow (implementation)Arvind and Gostelow, University of California, Irvine
1978?MATLABCleve Moler at the University of New MexicoFortran
1978?SMALLNevil Brownlee at the University of AucklandAlgol60
1978VisiCalcDan BricklinBob Frankston marketed by VisiCorpnone (unique language)
1979Modula-2Niklaus WirthModula, Mesa
1979REXXMike Cowlishaw at IBMPL/I, BASIC, EXEC 2
1979AWKAlfred AhoPeter J. WeinbergerBrian KernighanC, SNOBOL
1979Icon (implementation)Ralph GriswoldSNOBOL
1979Vulcan dBase-IIWayne Ratliffnone (unique language)

1980s[edit]

YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
1980Ada 80 (MIL-STD-1815)Jean Ichbiah at CII Honeywell BullGreen
1980C with classesBjarne Stroustrup[7]C, Simula 67
1980Applesoft IIIApple ComputerApplesoft II BASIC
1980Apple III Microsoft BASICMicrosoftMicrosoft BASIC
1980–81CBASICGordon EubanksBASIC, Compiler Systems, Digital Research
1981BBC BASICAcorn ComputersSophie WilsonBASIC
1981IBM BASICAMicrosoftBASIC
1982?Speakeasy-IVStanley Cohen, et al. at Speakeasy Computing CorporationSpeakeasy-3
1982?DracoChris GrayPascalCALGOL 68
1982PostScriptWarnockInterPress
1982TuringRic Holt and James Cordy, at University of TorontoEuclid
1983GW-BASICMicrosoftIBM BASICA
1983Turbo PascalHejlsberg at BorlandPascal
1983Ada 83 (ANSI/MIL-STD-1815A)Jean Ichbiah at AlsysAda 80, Green
1983Objective-CBrad CoxSmalltalk, C
1983C++Bjarne StroustrupC with Classes
1983True BASICJohn George KemenyThomas Eugene Kurtz at Dartmouth CollegeBASIC
1983occamDavid MayEPL
1983?ABAPSAP AGCOBOL
1983Korn Shell (ksh)David Kornsh
1983ClascalApple Computer Inc.Pascal
1984CLIPPERNantucketdBase
1984Common LispGuy L. Steele, Jr. and many othersLISP
1984?GOM – Good Old MadDon Boettner, University of MichiganMAD
1984RPLHewlett-PackardForthLisp
1984Standard MLML
1984RedcodeAlexander Dewdney and D.G. Jones
1984OPLPSIONBASIC
1985PARADOXBorlanddBase
1985QuickBASICMicrosoftBASIC
1986ClarionBruce Barrington
1986CorVisionCortexINFORM
1986EiffelBertrand MeyerSimula 67, Ada
1986GFA BASICFrank OstrowskiBASIC
1986Informix-4GLInformix
1986LabVIEWNational Instruments
1986MirandaDavid Turner at University of Kent
1986Object PascalApple Computer Inc.Pascal
1986PROMALC
1986ErlangJoe Armstrong and others in EricssonProlog
1987Ada ISO 8652:1987ANSI/MIL-STD-1815A unchangedAda 83
1987Self (concept)Sun Microsystems Inc.Smalltalk
1987occam 2David May and INMOSoccam
1987HyperTalkApple Computer Inc.none (unique language)
1987PerlLarry WallC, sed, awk, sh
1987OberonNiklaus WirthModula-2
1987Mathematica (Wolfram Language)Wolfram Researchnone (unique language)
1987Turbo BasicRobert 'Bob' ZaleBASIC/Z
1987CleanSoftware Technology Research Group of Radboud University Nijmegennone (unique language)
1988RPG/400IBMFARGORPGRPG IIRPG III
1988OctaveMATLAB
1988TclJohn OusterhoutAwk, Lisp
1988STOS BASICFrançois Lionet and Constantin SotiropoulosBASIC
1988ActorCharles Duff, the Whitewater GroupForth, Smalltalk
1988Object REXXSimon C. NashREXX, Smalltalk
1988SPARKBernard A. CarréAda
1988A+Arthur WhitneyAPL
1988Hamilton C shellNicole HamiltonC shell
1989Turbo Pascal OOPAnders Hejlsberg at BorlandTurbo Pascal, Object Pascal
1989Modula-3Cardeli, et al. DEC and OlivettiModula-2
1989PowerBASICRobert 'Bob' ZaleTurbo Basic
1989VisSimPeter Darnell, Visual Solutions
1989LPCLars Pensjö
1989BashBrian FoxBourne shellC shellKorn shell
1989Magik (programming language)Arthur Chance, of Smallworld Systems LtdSmalltalk
1989Python (programming language)Guido Van RossumSETL

1990s[edit]

YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
1990AMOS BASICFrançois Lionet and Constantin SotiropoulosSTOS BASIC
1990AMPLRobert Fourer, David Gay and Brian Kernighan at Bell Laboratories
1990Object OberonH Mössenböck, J Templ, R GriesemerOberon
1990JKenneth E. IversonRoger Hui at Iverson SoftwareAPL, FP
1990HaskellMiranda
1990EuLispCommon Lisp, Scheme
1990Z Shell (zsh)Paul Falstad at Princeton Universityksh
1991GNU EDavid J. DeWitt, Michael J. CareyC++
1991Oberon-2Hanspeter Mössenböck, WirthObject Oberon
1991PythonGuido van RossumABCALGOL 68IconModula-3
1991OzGert Smolka and his studentsProlog
1991QAlbert Gräf
1991Visual BasicAlan Cooper, sold to MicrosoftQuickBASIC
1992Borland PascalTurbo Pascal OOP
1992Dylanmany people at Apple Computer Inc.Common Lisp, Scheme
1992S-LangJohn E. DavisPostScript
1993?Self (implementation)Sun Microsystems Inc.Smalltalk
1993Amiga EWouter van OortmerssenDEX, C, Modula-2
1993BrainfuckUrban MüllerP′′
1993LiveCode TranscriptHyperTalk
1993AppleScriptApple Computer Inc.HyperTalk
1993KArthur WhitneyAPL, Lisp
1993LuaRoberto Ierusalimschy et al. at Tecgraf, PUC-RioScheme, SNOBOL, Modula, CLU, C++
1993RRobert Gentleman and Ross IhakaS
1993ZPLChamberlain et al. at University of WashingtonC
1993NewtonScriptWalter SmithSelf, Dylan
1993EuphoriaRobert CraigSNOBOL, AWK, ABC, Icon, Python
1994ClaireYves CaseauSmalltalk, SETL, OPS5, Lisp, ML, C, LORE, LAURE
1994ANSI Common LispCommon Lisp
1994RAPIDABB GroupARLA
1994PikeFredrik Hübinette et al. at Linköping UniversityLPC, C, µLPC
1994ANS ForthElizabeth Rather, et al.Forth
1995Ada 95S. Tucker Taft, et al. at Intermetrics, Inc.Ada 83
1995Borland DelphiAnders Hejlsberg at BorlandBorland Pascal
1995ColdFusion (CFML)Allaire
1995JavaJames Gosling at Sun MicrosystemsC, Simula 67, C++, Smalltalk, Ada 83, Objective-C, Mesa
1995LiveScriptBrendan Eich at NetscapeSelf, C, Scheme
1995MercuryZoltan Somogyi at University of MelbourneProlog, Hope, Haskell
1995PHPRasmus LerdorfPerl
1995RubyYukihiro MatsumotoSmalltalk, Perl
1995JavaScriptBrendan Eich at NetscapeLiveScript
1995RacketMatthew Flatt at Rice UniversitySchemeLisp
1996CurlDavid Kranz, Steve Ward, Chris Terman at MITLisp, C++, Tcl/Tk, TeX, HTML
1996LassoBlue World Communications Inc.
1996Perl Data Language (PDL)Karl GlazebrookJarle BrinchmannTuomas Lukka, and Christian SoellerAPL, Perl
1996VBScriptMicrosoftVisual Basic
1996OCamlINRIACaml Light, Standard ML
1996NetRexxMike CowlishawREXX
1997Component PascalOberon microsystems, IncOberon-2
1997EMark S. MillerJoule, Original-E
1997PicoFree University of BrusselsScheme
1997Squeak SmalltalkAlan Kayet al. at Apple Computer Inc.Smalltalk-80, Self
1997ECMAScriptECMA TC39-TG1JavaScript
1997F-ScriptPhilippe MouginSmalltalk, APL, Objective-C
1997ISLISPISO Standard ISLISPCommon Lisp
1997TeaJorge NunesJavaSchemeTcl
1997REBOLCarl Sassenrath, Rebol TechnologiesSelfForthLispLogo
1998LogtalkPaulo Moura (then at University of Coimbra)Prolog
1998ActionScriptGary GrossmanECMAScript
1998Standard C++ANSI/ISO Standard C++C++, Standard C, C
1998M2001Ronald E. Prather, Trinity University (Texas)none (unique language)
1998PiktRobert Osterlund (then at University of Chicago)AWK, Perl, Unix shell
1998PureBasicFrederic Laboureur, Fantaisie Software
1998UnrealScriptTim Sweeney at Epic GamesC++, Java
1998XSLT (+ XPath)W3CJames ClarkDSSSL
1999Game Maker Language(GML)Mark OvermarsGame Maker
1999HarbourAntonio LinaresdBase

2000s[edit]

YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
2000Join JavaG Stewart von ItzsteinJava
2000DarkBasicThe Game Creators Ltd.
2000C#Anders HejlsbergMicrosoft (ECMA)C, C++, Java, Delphi, Modula-2
2001JoyManfred von ThunFP, Forth
2001AspectJGregor KiczalesXerox PARCJava, Common Lisp
2001DWalter Bright, Digital MarsC, C++, C#, Java
2001ProcessingCasey Reas and Benjamin FryJavaCC++[8]
2001Visual Basic .NETMicrosoftVisual Basic
2001RPG IV (RPGLE, ILE RPG, RPG Free)IBMFARGORPGRPG IIRPG IIIRPG/400
2001GDScript (GDS)OKAM StudioGodot
2002IoSteve DekorteSelf, NewtonScript, Lua
2002GosuGuidewire SoftwareGScript
2002PlayBasicKevin Picone
2002ScratchMitchel Resnick, John Maloney, Natalie Rusk, Evelyn Eastmond, Tammy Stern, Amon Millner, Jay Silver, and Brian SilvermanLogoSmalltalkSqueakE-ToysHyperCard, AgentSheets, StarLogo, Tweak, BYOB
2003NemerleUniversity of WrocławC#, ML, MetaHaskell
2003FactorSlava PestovJoy, Forth, Lisp
2003FalconGiancarlo NiccolaiC++, Perl, Lua, Smalltalk, PHP, Lisp, Python, Ruby
2003ScalaMartin OderskySmalltalk, Java, Haskell, Standard ML, OCaml
2003C++03C++ ISO/IEC 14882:2003C++, Standard C, C
2003SquirrelAlberto DemichelisLua
2003BooRodrigo B. de OliveiraPython, C#
2004SubtextJonathan Edwardsnone (unique language)
2004Alma-0Krzysztof Apt, Centrum Wiskunde & Informaticanone (unique language)
2004FreeBASICAndre VictorQBasic
2004GroovyJames StrachanJava
2004Little bAneil Mallavarapu, Harvard Medical School, Department of Systems BiologyLisp
2005FantomBrian Frank, Andy FrankC#, Scala, Ruby, Erlang
2005F#Don SymeMicrosoft ResearchOCamlC#Haskell
2005HaxeNicolas CannasseActionScriptOCamlJava
2005OxygeneRemObjects SoftwareObject PascalC#
2005Seed7Thomas Mertesnone (unique language)
2006LinksPhilip WadlerUniversity of EdinburghHaskell
2006CobraChuckEsterbrookPython, C#, Eiffel, Objective-C
2006Windows PowerShellMicrosoftC#, ksh, Perl, CLDCL, SQL
2006OptimJAtejiJava
2006FortressGuy SteeleScalaMLHaskell
2006ValaGNOMEC#
2007Ada 2005Ada Rapporteur GroupAda 95
2007AgdaUlf NorellCoqEpigramHaskell
2007QB64Galleon, QB64TeamQBasic
2007ClojureRich HickeyLispMLHaskellErlang
2007LOLCODEAdam Lindsaynone (unique language)
2007Oberon-07WirthOberon
2007Swift (parallel scripting language)University of ChicagoArgonne National Laboratory
2008NimAndreas RumpfPythonLispObject Pascal
2008GenieJamie McCrackenPythonBooDObject Pascal
2008PureAlbert GräfQ
2009ChapelBrad Chamberlain, Cray Inc.HPFZPL
2009GoGoogleCOberonLimboSmalltalk
2009CoffeeScriptJeremy AshkenasJavaScriptRubyPythonHaskell
2009IdrisEdwin BradyHaskellAgdaCoq
2009ParasailS. Tucker Taft, AdaCoreModulaAdaPascalML
2009WhileyDavid J. PearceJavaCPython
2009DafnyK. Rustan M. LeinoJavaSpec#

2010s[edit]

YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
2010RustGraydon Hoare, MozillaAlefC++Camlp4ErlangHermesLimbo, Napier, Napier88Newsqueak, NIL,SatherStandard ML
2011CeylonGavin King, Red HatJava
2011DartGoogleJavaJavaScriptCoffeeScriptGo
2011C++11C++ ISO/IEC 14882:2011C++, Standard C, C
2011KotlinJetBrainsJavaScalaGroovyC#Gosu
2011RedNenad RakocevicRebolScalaLua
2011MonkeyXMark Sibly
2011OpaMLstateOCamlErlangJavaScript
2012ElixirJosé ValimErlangRubyClojure
2012ElmEvan CzaplickiHaskellStandard MLOCamlF#
2012TypeScriptAnders HejlsbergMicrosoftJavaScriptCoffeeScript
2012JuliaJeff BezansonStefan Karpinski, Viral Shah, Alan EdelmanMITMATLABLispCFortranMathematica[9] (strictly its Wolfram Language), Python,PerlRRubyLua[10]
2012PVivek Gupta, Ethan JacksonShaz QadeerSriram RajamaniMicrosoft
2012Ada 2012ARA and Ada Europe (ISO/IEC 8652:2012)Ada 2005, ISO/IEC 8652:1995/Amd 1:2007
2013P4P4 Language Consortium (P4.org)
2013CuneiformJörgen BrandtSwift (parallel scripting language)
2014CrystalAry Borenszweig, Manas Technology SolutionsRubyCRustGoC#Python
2014HackFacebookPHP
2014SwiftApple Inc.Objective-CRustHaskellRubyPythonC#CLU
2014C++14C++ ISO/IEC 14882:2014C++, Standard C, C
2015Perl 6The Rakudo TeamPerlHaskellPythonRuby
2015SpiderBasicFrederic Laboureur, Fantaisie Software
2016RingMahmoud FayedLuaPythonRubyCC#BASICQMLxBase, Supernova
2017C++17C++ ISO/IEC 14882:2017C++, Standard C, C
2017CerberusXMichael Hartlef, Martin LeidelMonkeyX
2017BallerinaWSO2, Open Source[11]
2018Fortran 2018ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG5 N2150:2018Fortran 2008

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up^ Booth, Kathleen. "machine language for Automatic Relay Computer".Birkbeck College Computation Laboratory,. University of London.
  2. Jump up^ Campbell-Kelly, Martin "The Development of Computer Programming in Britain (1945 to 1955)", The Birkbeck College Machines, in (1982) Annals of the History of Computing 4(2) April 1982 IEEE
  3. Jump up^ UNIVAC conferenceCharles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. 171-page transcript of oral history with computer pioneers, including Albert B. Tonik, involved with the Univac computer, held on 17–18 May 1990.
  4. Jump up^ "Der Freiburger Code auf der Zuse" (in German). Retrieved 26 October2014.
  5. Jump up^ H. Zuse. "Z22". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  6. Jump up^ Smillie, Keith. "Kenneth E. Iverson - A.M. Turing Award Winner". ACM.
  7. Jump up^ http://isocpp.org/tour
  8. Jump up^ https://www.arduino.cc/en/Reference/HomePage
  9. Jump up^ "Why We Created Julia"Julia website. February 2012. Retrieved7 February 2013.
  10. Jump up^ "Introduction"The Julia Manual. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016.
  11. Jump up^ https://github.com/ballerina-platform/ballerina-lang

External links[edit]

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_programming_languages 

 

 

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