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작성자 키트 작성일2017-08-22 16:32 조회1,610회 댓글0건

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ECE 4760Final Projects

Homemade VGA Adapter

An inexpensive solution, pushing the envelope on MCU clock cycle optimization

Ryan Fanelli (raf225@cornell.edu)

David Hartino (dah322@cornell.edu)

 



"I've never been so excited to see color bars in my life."

Project Soundbyte


3660040649_Jwg6bVQl_header.jpg

Introduction

Motivation

The goal of our project is to create a VGA video adapter. This “homemade video card” should be able to connect to any monitor that subscribes to VGA standards with a standard connector and display the desired material reliably. The challenges involved here stem from adapting a general use microprocessor that we are familiar with to a specific task that it may (or may not) be suited to. The project required the researching and understanding the VGA standard of how a picture is displayed on a computer screen, identifying the shortcomings or advantages of the MEGA644 processor in accomplishing this, development and fabrication of the necessary hardware to interface with the screen, and in converting images to a format that can be stored in memory and displayed on the microprocessor.

We divided our goals for this project into a progression of three different tasks, each building off of the previous one.

  • First, we wanted to display color bars on the screen, by means of direct output from the microcontroller to an analog circuit that transformed pin outs to VGA output.
  • Next, we wanted to display color bars or a static image to the screen, by means of triggering RGB outputs from static random-access memory (SRAM).
  • Finally, we wanted to render an animation or video to the screen, by means of triggering outputs from SRAM but also writing to SRAM live data simultaneously.

 

 

Our ultimate goal, originally, was to stream a live CCD camera to VGA output using our device. However, upon delivery of the CCD camera and studying its output, we observed very quickly that its transmitted signals were not suitable to be converted to VGA in the scope of the remaining time in our 5-week project. This will be described at greater length after a brief background about the standards and parameters relating to VGA.

While this is a “solved problem” by industry standards, it poses a number of interesting challenges to the inquiring student.

  • The clock speed of the processor versus the needed clock speed of the VGA standard (overclocking).
  • The onboard memory the MEGA644 has versus the needed memory (external memory).
  • The exact timing needed for the VGA output standard (cycle accuracy).
  • Fabrication of appropriate hardware to address shortcomings of the processor for the above tasks or in simply building hardware filters/interfaces for the VGA standard.

 

Research

Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a video standard devised by IBM for their PS/2 computers in 1987. The widespread adoption has since made this the baseline for all displays and is still the baseline for operation today. The standard specifies a set of screen resolutions, operating modes, and minimum hardware requirements.

There are five signals in the VGA connection that we are most interested in: two for timing conditioning and three for colorization.

For conditioning, the vertical sync pulse is a digital active low signal whose negative edge triggers the monitor moving focus to the topmost line, leftmost pixel of the screen to display RGB; the horizontal sync pulse is a digital active low signal whose negative edge triggers the monitor focus to the leftmost pixel of the next line down from where current focus is. When not in the presence of sync pulses, the monitor moves focus to the pixel to the right of existing focus, one pixel per clock cycle on a 25.175 MHz clock.

The other three signals with which we are concerned are for Red, Blue, and Green, which are each analog signals sent to the monitor. Thus, since we store values (like the colors in an image) as digital elements in the MCU, part of the hardware for such a device would require a Digital-to-Analog conversion.

3660040649_PGUDt9di_vga_pinout.gif

Pinout diagram of a VGA adapter, from Wikipedia


3660040649_xbjFN4XY_vga_waveform.gif

VGA Waveform Guide, from Altera

Given these five signals, we can divide each line into four distinct sections. During the first section (Vertical and Horizontal Syncs), the necessary syncs are driven low and RGB must be set to digital low, as well, for the monitor to observe the syncs correctly. To skip ahead to the third section (RGB), this is when the syncs are kept high and the RGB signals are of variable output depending on screen colorization. The two other sections (the second: Back Porch, and the fourth: Front Porch) are spare cycles that keep the syncs high and RGB low, with the direction (Back, Front) referring to the location of the porch relative to nearest sync section of relative magnitude.

3660040649_jTEOxfoU_vga_standard.gif

Summary of stages and stage overlap in VGA standard

3660040649_jBG8NdTA_vga_timing.gif

Timing of stages in VGA standard

During observation, we noticed that the porches can be used for additional computation and preparation time for the next line to be printed; however, the syncs need not be as long as shown in the diagrams above. Rather, if one wanted to, they could trigger RGB immediately following the positive edge of the horizontal sync and drive it low immediately preceding the negative edge of the horizontal sync—so as to maximize the length of color printed to the screen.

Reconsideration of Project Scope

Now, with the insight about how VGA signals and timing works, we return to the original proposal of CCD camera live display to VGA. Upon learning more about a sample WiseCom miniature camera and its limited accompanying documentation, we learned that output is a single signal consisting of sync pulses for each line and rapidly changing RGB values in between the sync pulses at a notably higher voltage. The signal appeared to be compliant with NTSC standards, which has a period of 50 uS between sync pulses (versus 31.78 uS for our VGA output).

Because of this time difference, even with implementation of a buffer and additional digital circuitry, our VGA screen could change at most once every two samples, as a result of the timing difference, making the change from NTSC to VGA functionally insignificant in terms of quality. Moreover, having to isolate the sync pulse and decode RGB values from a single signal would add to the complexity of this goal. Though possible to convert NTSC to VGA through precise edge-based interrupts, timing, sampling, and buffering, that goal seemed incredibly unlikely and also risky for the amount of time that had been remaining, and would likely have entailed in entire project in and of itself.

To replace the live camera feed as our ultimate goal for VGA display, we needed to choose another application, and, at that, one that could exhibit real time memory loading and animation during porch time. An added goal was to include user-interactivity, which would, in turn, require the use of more ports than we have availability, thus needing a design solution to address the limited number of ports.

We decided to implement a ‘Paint’-like application, to accompany the already existing Image Mode functionality, where the user loads a static images to memory. In Paint Mode, the device would take advantage of the image the user loaded previously, storing this as the background. Using a joystick, the user would then move a colored cursor around the screen, painting their choice of 16 4-bit colors superimposed on the background. In addition to allowing for user interactivity, more ports than available, and real-time updated animation functionalities, Paint Mode would require the use of multiple memory blocks, having the image stored more than once, because we need to preserve the color of the background image that is obscured by the cursor to be replaced once the cursor moves away. This added design capability would not be necessary if there did not exist a “clear” paint color that the user can select to move around the screen without painting on top of the background, thus affording an addition functionality.

Aside from working to develop a VGA driver on an MCU that is not intended to have the memory or speed to drive such a device, the most significant takeaways from this project are the understanding of VGA as a precision data vehicle and the achievement of creating a standalone and self-sufficient application to fulfill these goals. As mentioned in the initial project description, our goals, including VGA output and, now, creating Paint, are not broaching on uncharted technological territory; however, implementing these functionalities in something as low-level as assembly has the potential to offer greater optimization capabilities (and as such, reward and satisfaction at the end of the day).

High-Level Design    top

System Organization

In order to meet the requirements of our final design—including display of both painted and loaded data images, we needed to implement three different programs, each executed for a different purpose.


3660040649_02SsYah1_high_level_block.gif

High-Level Block Diagram

Firstly, to display an image to the screen, we need to have a data point for each pixel in the image to display. We used a storage scheme of dividing our 8-bits of color data into 2-bit pairs for the colors Red, Green, Blue, and also 2-bits for shading, representing different brightness levels. For this, we created a Java application that samples, analyzes, and averages RGB data from a user-provided image for processing it into our 8-bit styled RGBS format and exported as a file.

The contents of this file can then be loaded into program memory of a second application which writes the data to SRAM, saving the pixel colors to memory for later use. After loading completes, this application displays the loaded image to the VGA monitor in 8-bit color. To display an image to the monitor at high enough of a resolution, the pixel data for the image will exceed the storage capacity of the MCU. Thus, a series of files are created for each image that is processed, which can be loaded into SRAM over the course of numerous program executions. This procedure represents Image Mode.

A separate application affords the user the functionality of the Paint Mode application described above.

On the hardware side, the necessary connections need to be made between the MCU and memory. Furthermore, MCU and SRAM output are digital, but VGA color input is analog, requiring a Digital to Analog Converter circuit. Finally, a Tri-state stands between memory and the VGA so as prevent memory’s RGBS output pins to be sending to the monitor when our sync pulses are low, so as to not interfere with pixel alignment and ruin the integrity of the signal and image.

Other important considerations and high-level design tradeoffs regarding port assignments, timing, and implementation are described in more detail below.

Port Assignments

Both Image Mode and Paint Mode will be displaying data from SRAM to the screen, meaning that they will each require 18 address bits as outputs (to point to a location in SRAM). Overall, SRAM has 19 address bits, but we need not use all of them. The distribution of these bits is described in more detail under the Memory Loading heading of the Software section.

Both modes also share a need to have an enable bit for the Tri-state, a Vertical sync pulse to signal the monitor for a new screen, a Horizontal sync pulse to signal the monitor for a new line, an SRAM write bit, and an SRAM output or read bit—all of which are active low.

With 23 bits occupied in each of our modes, we are left with nine to use.

In the Image Mode, it is critical that we load 8-bits of color into SRAM, allowing for 256 different colors to be sent to VGA. This leaves only one vacant port which will go unused.

In the Paint Mode, the user needs to be able to interact with the application via joystick and button, thus requiring 5 inputs and leaving 4 remaining. In order for the cursor in paint to move about the screen (and thus be written and re-written to SRAM), we need output ports from the MCU. However, in order to restore the portion of the image obscured by the cursor once it has moved, we also need to have input ports to read from SRAM.

This point represents an integral design decision in our development process where more bit functions exist than there are ports. To resolve this, we first considered the different applications of the ports in demand. Realizing that we do not have space for 8 inputs and 8 outputs for SRAM I/O RGBS data, we decided that—solely for the paint application—colorization will be reduced to 4-bits instead of 8-bits. While the Image Mode will preserve 256 colors, the paint modes pigment selections will be limited to just 16.

After this decision, we have need for 4 SRAM inputs, 4 SRAM outputs, and 5 joystick inputs (for four directions and a button), but only nine pins exist to fit these. Seeing that there are nine inputs, including two groups of four (for joystick directions and SRAM I/O), we decided to multiplex these together. Using the horizontal sync (which goes low for ~70 clock cycles per line displayed to the screen) as a multiplexing control bit, we can read the joystick inputs while the horizontal sync is low, and otherwise read the outputs of SRAM on those pins. This allows the joystick button and the outputs to write to SRAM to receive their own (un-shared or un-multiplexed) pins, unperturbed.


3660040649_ZnlLUS9A_port_assignments.gif

Output Port Assignments


3660040649_MTb5n83E_pin_assignments.gif

Input Pin Assignments

The final choice came to distribution of the pin assignments. The first 16 bits of SRAM address are kept together in PORTA and PORTC, so as to be easily incremented. We then wanted to put the five input pins alongside other bits that could be changed in isolation without altering them all at once (since we should not be reassigning port values for the input bits, so as to enable pull-up resistors and potentially alter our circuit conditions; meanwhile, other operations to affect a cluster of bits in a single port but not others will be more costly in terms of time, which is disadvantageous to us in this project).

Thus, the input pins were matched alongside the Horizontal and Vertical sync in addition to the Tri-state output enable—each of which is assigned as an individual bit and independently of the others—on PORTD. It was beneficial to leave the four related data RGBS outputs to SRAM I/O on another port that could be assigned as a cluster (along with the remaining two address bits, and SRAM’s write- and output-enable bits) since we note that, when looking at the library of available assembly instructions, a cycle cost of 1 is assessed for reassigning a port’s entire 8-bit value simultaneously, but a cost of 2 is assessed to alter each individual bit in isolation, making it a poor decision to have put these four data bits that are assigned to all at once alongside the input values, and instead put them on PORTB.

Timing Considerations

Next, we need to assess the timing of our operation. Although we generally use a 16 MHz crystal in lab, 25.175 MHz is the VGA standard, and gives us more clock cycles to work with, giving us more flexibility in operation during time that we are outputting to the display. As such, we decided to overclock the MCU by ~25% using a 25.175 MHz crystal, and, provided that, we can identify the following:


3660040649_WHGSwpm9_timing_calc_1.gif

Now, we can observe how this will impact our capacity for output, knowing that we will follow the general VGA standard and spend 800 cycles processing each line at the proper frequency, and use this to identify an optimal number of lines to process to match a standard 60 Hz refresh rate as closely as possible.


3660040649_iWp2ljcv_timing_calc_2.gif

For convenience, we decided to have 512 lines per screen, and can proceed to identify the following.


3660040649_fkBCmH7D_timing_calc_3.gif

Timing Tradeoffs

The most critical feature of VGA is precise and consistent timing. We observed from various examples that a single clock cycle difference between horizontal screen lines of output results in a jagged, zigzag appearance since one clock cycle difference equates to a one pixel shift.

Since each clock cycle represents a pixel, this indicates that the only way to obtain full resolution across a line is to change the output for every pixel, and thus, every clock cycle. Although our original proposal acknowledged an interest in implementing a VGA-output program in C, it became very evident through initial testing that programming in C or any other even higher level language would sacrifice our granularity over control of clock cycles, and possibly compromise consistency and precision of our output—particularly for not being able to control the compiler’s output and how many clock cycles are used for a given line of code, depending on the singular or sequence of instructions. With this in mind, we proceeded to implement the body of our code in assembly language.

Even with the body in assembly, we were left to consider different design implementations as to how to output VGA signal to the screen. Two ideas were having the assembly body output a single line to the screen versus having the assembly body output an entire screen. Having the routine called once per line means that the code needs to respond and be prepared within ~31.78 uS, but more importantly, this preparation needs to take place during the fraction of that time not being used for display (when the function can be released—less than one-fourth of that, or less than 7.9 uS). Having the routine called once per screen means that the code needs to respond and be prepared within ~16.7 mS, or the fraction of that time during which lines at the bottom of the screen are not being printed but rather withheld, which, for 32 of 512 lines would be ~1.03 mS).

These considerations were as follows:

  1. Executing the assembly body called from an interrupt in C
    Tradeoffs: easy to implement regular interrupt; need to have a timer count to ~400,000 if implemented once per screen; losing ~70 clock cycles from entering the interrupt; losing ~10 clock cycles from entering the assembly function
  2. Executing the assembly body called from a naked interrupt in C
    Tradeoffs: more challenging to implement and preserve registers; losing ~5 clock cycles from entering the interrupt; losing ~10 clock cycles from entering the assembly function
  3. Executing the assembly body called from an interrupt in assembly
    Tradeoffs: not too challenging to implement, simply a new technique; minimal overhead; (like the above) would need to account for latency—since the processor completes the current instruction before entering an interrupt, even if it costs numerous clock cycles—so that each line of display starts at the same precise pixel; (also like the above) we would need to use caution when assigning tasks to the main routine, since we are not always guaranteed to finish them, which is arguably dangerous if the program relies on these tasks completing to re-write part of the pixels in memory before the next screen
  4. Executing the assembly body in an assembly loop
    Tradeoffs: the most intuitive to implement; most granular control over allocation of cycles; least associated overhead; requires the rest of the application to be programmed in assembly; requires the most time to construct, debug, and track memory, register assignments, cycle accuracy, and other low-level parameters that are generally taken care of in higher-level languages

 

In the interests of pushing the capacity of the MCU as far as possible, we began testing concept [1] just to see if it would work. We could observe that the output was consistent and the interrupt was being called in equal intervals in trials with a prescaler of 1024. However, as the prescaler was lowered to approach the realistic and required value of one, we noticed significant performance degradation and lag time on interrupt calls, eliminating this from our list of viable solutions.

We proceeded to investigate naked interrupts for concept [2], and began conducting trials with those but noticed performance degradation here, as well, although it took longer to reach lag here than in the previous case, but it still occurred before reaching a prescaler of one.

Between remaining concepts [3] and [4], we decided in the interests of granular control to pursue concept [4] since we would consistently be fully cognizant of the number of clock cycles for performance and could use that insight to keep our options open for project extensions and a larger pool of potential applications to display on the VGA later in the process once image display was successfully achieved.

Hardware    top

3660040649_AKxRwDUH_board.jpg

Schematics of the displayed circuity available in the Appendix.

Hardware Selection

The necessary considerations for the selection of the hardware were driven by the need to execute tasks that the microprocessor that we had the most familiarity with [the Atmel MEGA 644] is not particularly suited for the task of driving video. While not totally impossible, a professional hardware designer would make different architecture choices to leverage innate capabilities of different processors and their I/O configurations. We saw this as a primary challenge to the project and set about initially to improve upon other examples in terms of screen resolution and execution features.

The initial hardware platform was inspired through a reference project where someone attempted to build a VGA driver using the 644. The basic platform was adapted to our needs and then added ot as necessary to confront the hacks others used to overcome the system limitations.

The basic task is to write pixels to a screen. Considering the VGA standard of 640 x 480 active pixels, this yields over 300,000 pixels sent to the screen 60 times per second. Each pixel can be represented as a byte to yield a 256 color palette, and this in turn, generates 2.45 gigabits of information to output to the screen at 60 Hz! Needless to say, this is far beyond the memory capability of the MEGA 644, even if were to co-opt all of the EEPROM, which is only good for 2KB. Therefore some serious outboard memory will be required.

Additionally, the flow control of this data stream needs to be tightly controlled and data bus collisions must be avoided for this to work. Therefore, a traffic cop is needed to enforce blanking intervals to ensure proper synchronization and to allow for writing information to the outboard memory as well as reading the stored memory to send it to the screen. For this we will use an Octal Bus Transceiver (here after referred to as a ‘tristate’) because it has the attractive features of enabling through 1-bit control and effectively prevents reverse biasing, an important consideration which will be revisited later in the project.

The last component of the core hardware is a DAC to interpret the color palette we have sent to the screen and generate the analog R-G-B information that the VGA monitor is waiting for. While DAC’s are available, a simple passive component DAC was chosen for several reasons most important of which is that it works well.

With these needs in mind we confirmed our use of the MEGA644 and selected a 512 x 8 Static RAM chip, a LS74245 octal bus Transceiver, and used lab surplus resistors and diodes to build the analog DAC. The choices of the hardware reflect the concept that we will be dealing with the data a byte at a time and do not need bit-accurate recall; one command reads, writes or passes through a byte (colored pixel) in one motion. Given that the response time of the SRAM is on the order of 10 nS, this will be quick enough to work; older hardware such as the eeprom chips kicking around our shop have both insufficient capacity and their access times were too long by at least an order of magnitude.

The real difficulty in the SRAM concept was the package. Chips of the capacity and speed to fit our needs are not available in a PDIP format. I saw a number of ‘creative solutions’ to this problem on hobby websites and came up with the idea of soldering ribbon cables to the j-pins of the SOJ chip we had and terminating them to a 40-pin IC socket. (It seems that a 36-pin adapter either does not exist or is sufficiently rare as to avoid detection.)


3660040649_Al9jDYFB_soj_sram_conversion.JPG

SOJ SRAM Conversion

Next, the logic gate array that will interface with the processor was built using standard LS-series logic linear circuits; these are industry standard and even if our processing time is fast, the switching characteristics of these common chips are generally fast enough: on the order of 8-15 nS.

The last selection was to be that which drove the entire project: the timing crystal. The AT MEGA 644 is rated to run at 20 MHz, however the VGA standard is 25.175 MHz. This would mean ‘overclocking’ by almost 29%. Overclocking results in higher power draw, higher operating temperatures, and the possibility of processor breakdown through timer errors or the inability of outport ports to cycle fast enough. Obviously, we took the overclock route and selected a 25.275 MHz oscillator crystal.

Power was supplied by a standard 7805-style voltage regulator, a 340T5. This supplies a regulated 5VDC supply at 1.0 A (more than enough!) and we added 2 bolt-on heat sinks to accomplish sufficient dissipation. The circuits were assembled on spare solderboards found in the MAE and ECE labs that had friendly configurations and were populated by hand.


3660040649_ioQFwhdC_hardware_layout.gif

Hardware Layout

Signal Flow

Signal flow is generally not as one would expect, that is that the MCU would access the byte stored in memory and send it to the screen. Not only could the processor run fast enough to accomplish this, but there is no real need to do so. Rather, the MCU sends a stream of addresses to the SRAM, which then dumps the needed byte directly to the tristate to be exported to the screen.


3660040649_IhQzfxOv_image_mode.jpg

Image Mode Hardware Flow, write information to SRAM and display a static image

In the Paint Mode, the image needs to be updated by some method and then sent to the screen, thus requiring the additional steps of updating the pixel information and writing the byte to the SRAM so that it may be sent to the screen in the future. The block diagram would look the same; the MCU would simply add the process of repeatedly iterating the write process as well as the read process of the SRAM. This would affect an animation or a trace being drawn across the screen, for example.

If a user interface is desired, then the flow is more complex with the selection of enabling the signal from the user (such as a joystick) when there is no signal being sent to the screen.


3660040649_reHyDmYP_paint_mode.jpg

Paint Mode Hardware Flow, interact with user input

Logical Design

The purpose of the logic gates is to enable/disable data flow based on the state of the MCU and therefore the SRAM. We could have done this through a separate pinout from the MCU, unfortunately, the ports are fully populated and so we required a passive method of doing this.

The logic gates are also buffered by the TriState #2, as previously mentioned. If this was not done and simple And gates were used, then when the user signal was disallowed the output would be driven to a logical low and data collisions would occur. Moreover, by using a truth-table style approach to scheduling of user interface we were able to exploit those valuable times when the processor was not parsing data to the screen to interac

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